Cardiovascular | Female Reproduction | Glandular Epithelium | Gastrointestinal
 
Cervix
  • Gross
  • Dysplastic
  • Pap Smear
  • Carcinoma
  • Breast
  • Normal
  • Fibrocystic
  • Hyperplasia
  • Fibroadenoma
  • Carcinoma
  • Female Reproductive Histopathology

    Normal Cervix, Gross

    Here is a normal cervix with a smooth, glistening mucosal surface. There is a small rim of vaginal cuff from this hysterectomy specimen. The cervical os is small and round, typical for a nulliparous woman. The os will have a fish-mouth shape after one or more pregnancies.

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    Dysplastic and Normal Cervical Squamous Epithelium, Low Power Microscopic

    The normal cervical squamous epithelium at the left transforms to dysplastic changes on the right. There is also underlying chronic inflammation because abnormal epithelial surfaces do not provide the same protective barrier as normal epithelial surfaces do.

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    Pap Smear, Dysplasia, Microscopic

    This is a Pap smear. The cytologic features of normal squamous epithelial cells can be seen at the center top and bottom, with orange to pale blue plate-like squamous cells that have small pyknotic nuclei. The dysplastic cells in the center extending to upper right are smaller overall with darker, more irregular nuclei.

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    Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Cervix, Low Power Microscopic

    This is why you do Pap smears--to prevent invasive squamous cell carcinomas from occurring. With Pap smears, pre-neoplastic and neoplastic cervical lesions can be detected when small and treated. Nests of squamous cell carcinoma have invaded underlying stroma at the center and left.

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    Normal breast, Low Power Microscopic

    The normal microscopic appearance of female breast tissue is shown here. There is a larger duct to the right and lobules to the left. A collagenous stroma extends between the structures. A variable amount of adipose tissue can be admixed with these elements.

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    Breast Fibrocystic Changes, Low Power Microscopic

    Another example of microscopic fibrocystic changes of the breast are shown here. Fibrocystic changes account for the majority of "breast lumps" that are found in women of reproductive years, particularly between age 30 and menopause.

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    Breast Fibrocystic Changes, Florid Epithelial Hyperplasia, High Power Microscopic

    More florid ductal epithelial hyperplasia of the breast is shown here. There is a slightly increased risk (1.5 to 2 times normal) for breast carcinoma when such changes are present.

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    Breast Fibroadenoma, Microscopic

    Here is the microscopic appearance of a fibroadenoma. To the right is compressed breast connective tissue forming a "capsule" to this mass. The neoplasm itself is composed of a fibroblastic stroma in which are located elongated compressed ducts lined by benign appearing epithelium.

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    Breast Comedocarcinoma, Medium Power Microscopic

    The cells in the center of the ducts with comedocarcinoma are often necrotic and calcify, as shown here. This central necrosis leads to the gross characteristic of extrusion of cheesy material from the ducts with pressure (comedone-like).

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