Verbs of Reported Speech:

The verbs that you use in your reported speech sentences ("he says") MUST reflect the author's intention and tone.  That is, using "say" or "state" over and over is not only boring  and repetitive but also gives the reader very little information.  Below is a list (not exhaustive) of possible verbs.  Choose your verbs according to the author's intention.  Ask yourself if he/she is arguing, explaining, demanding, asking, reporting, etc.

NOTE:  Most of these are followed by a "that" clause (eg. He states that Americans are afraid of non-existent risks).  However, some CANNOT BE.  Those that cannot are indicated by an asterisk.  These must be followed by a noun, noun phrase, or noun clause (He discusses the problems of youth today; He tells the reader that we are too afraid.)  "Ask," "question," "inquire," and "wonder" must be followed by "whether or not" or "if" (He wonders if Americans understand statistical probability.)