Reading for Understanding Three #64A

Thelma Thurstone The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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  1. For many centuries, historical inquiry was a barren field. Responsibility for all events was attributed to the deities, and no other explanation was acceptable. For example, it was said that wars occurred
  2. Your answer:
    to offend the gods.
    to punish the people for their sins.
    whenever people were severely oppressed.
    as a result of economic strife.

  3. We welcome new explanatory ideas, for they free us from the despotism of older ideas. But perhaps we now have a surplus of explanatory possibilities from which to choose. If only one of these can be correct, this large selection may be disconcerting to the theorist, for whom the chances of being wrong are
  4. Your answer:

  5. We take for granted many inventions that are not really very old. In 1876 a world's fair was held in Philadelphia to celebrate the first centennial of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. The crowds attending the fair were said to be less interested in the amusements offered than in the exhibits of the continuous printing press, the self-binding reaper, the telephone, the refrigerator car, the typewriter, and other innovations that to us are not
  6. Your answer:

  7. In my years of writing editorials for a large metropolitan newspaper, I never failed to make it clear that I considered the senator a complete demogogue. To be sure, I received many protests and disagreeable letters from people who thought the senator was a great crusader; but I owned a large and obliging wastebasket, and that wastebasket
  8. Your answer:
    was a gift from the senator.
    made me take care in what I wrote.
    was where I buried my mistakes.
    took care of this correspondence.

  9. The Italian prison physician Dr. Cesare Lombroso (1836-1909) shifted the emphasis in criminology from a study of crimes to a study of the criminal. Lombroso concluded from his studies that criminals had certain physical characteristics that made them different from other persons. Dr. Charles Goring, a prison physician in England, made an exhaustive study of the English convict (1913) and concluded that there is no such thing as a physical criminal type. Although Dr. Lombroso's conclusions are no longer accepted as scientific, he did stimulate
  10. Your answer:
    harsher attitudes towards criminals.
    the prevention of crime.
    many criminals to reform.
    scientific research in criminology.

  11. The usefulness of an object or idea differs with time and place; utility is a quality that is
  12. Your answer:
    neither permanent nor universal.
    never of any importance.
    not related to practicality.
    unchanging through the ages.

  13. The success of United States space exploration requires not only scientific ingenuity, but also many highly trained technicians in a wide variety of skills. In turn, this new technological development and refinement leads to new marketable products and to the improvement of products now commonly bought by ordinary citizen. Space exploration gives impetus to
  14. Your answer:
    an extensive emigration.
    a surplus of unskilled workers.
    an increased supply of consumer goods.
    a surplus of scientific geniuses.

  15. The writing style of Joseph Addison has been greatly praised. Samuel Johnson, himself a great writer, so admired Addison's style that he believed if you wish to attain an English style, familiar but not coarse, and elegant but not ostentatious, you must give your days and nights to the study of
  16. Your answer:

  17. If we look about us, we can observe with a degree of self-satisfaction how far the human race has progressed. We have learned to direct tremendous power, to create comfortable living conditions, to produce a great variety of food, and to control disease and pain to a high degree. Indeed, compared with our early ancestors, we have a comfortable position in our environment. It seems strange that many people term our modern age the
  18. Your answer:
    good old days.
    time of plenty.
    age of anxiety.

  19. From what source does the individual derive a claim to "certain inalienable rights"? When I search my innermost consciousness, I find only a sense of obligation towards others. Perhaps we originally knew only our own duties and came to infer our own right by reasoning that, "If I have such duties towards others, then
  20. Your answer:
    my efforts must be increased."
    others can require me to perform my duties."
    other must have similar duties towards me."
    I must perform them faithfully."

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