The eyes of the hippopotamus are close to the top of its head. Thus, it can be almost entirely under water and still be able to
The planet Mercury travels around the sun with the same side facing the sun for many weeks at a time. Whereas the side of Mercury facing the sun is very hot and always light, the other side is very cold and always
We say that a coward is "yellow." A sad person is said to feel "blue." A jealous person is "green" with envy. Often we use terms such as these in describing
a person's complexion.
how a person is dressed.
human feelings and actions.
the many beauties of nature.
Although stone furniture is heavy and hard to move, the ancient Romans commonly used it. Today, it is used mainly in parks and gardens, where it seldom needs to be
During a thunder-and-lightning storm, one is fairly safe indoors. Since a chimney rises unprotected above the roof, it is more likely to be struck by lightning than are other parts of the house. It is, therefore, wise to
close all doors and windows.
keep away from the fireplace.
avoid open places.
A birthstone is a gem symbolic of the month of one's birth. Ancient people believed that wearing one's birthstone strengthened character, kept one from harm, and made one lucky. Many people still like to wear their birthstones for decoration although they no longer believe that the stones have
The tiger is the fiercest member of the cat family. Only the lion equals the tiger in size. The lion has a frightening roar, but the tiger does not roar when it hunts for prey. The tiger moves quietly through the jungle and does not
warn its victims.
live near water.
The German composer Beethoven ranks as a genius in the world of music. He lived only fifty-seven years; for the last thirteen years of his life, he was deaf. It is remarkable that he composed many of his finest works after his
Fires in rough wilderness areas are combated by "smoke jumpers." They are expert fire fighters who are flown to the stricken area and who then parachute to the fire. They combat fires that could not be reached quickly by overland travel. Their work is of great value in
settlement of new areas.
The Minoans, a seafaring Mediterranean people, were among the first explorers. Their civilization flourished between 3000 B.C. and 1400 B.C. Minoan boats were small sailing boats with no room for cooking and sleeping. The sailors had to go ashore to spend the night. Fortunately for these sailors, the Mediterranean Sea has
Through these mountains, there is a narrow-gauge railway track along which no train now runs. There is no road, nor are there river routes. Travel across the mountains is possible only by
Niagara Falls are not the highest waterfalls in the world, nor do the falls carry the largest volume of water. However, the other great waterfalls of the world are much less accessible. Tourists can appreciate Niagara Falls because they can
get so close to the falls.
visit the power plants.
swim in the pools.
hear the roar of the water.
A volcano is a mountain that is building itself. When a volcano erupts, hot molten rock, solid rock, hot gases, and steam from far underground are pushed upward through a crack in the earth's surface. This volcanic matter is spewed into the air. Then it falls back to settle on and around the volcano. Each time that the volcano erupts, it thus becomes
One philosophy of the early eighteenth century was that everything that existed was good. In other words, nothing could be in this world unless there was some just reason for its presence. Alexander Pope, the poet, must have accepted this philosophy. He wrote, "Whatever is, is
The largest kind of animal that ever lived on the earth or in the sea still lives. It is the whale. A whale killed near Antarctica was 34 meters long and weighed almost 90 metric tons. The mass of a whale is supported by water; thus, it can grow larger than land animals, which are limited in size to the mass that can be supported by their
The boiling point of water is not constant for all altitudes. One hundred degrees Celsius is the temperature at which water boils at sea level. At a height of 5500 meters, water boils at eighty-three degrees Celsius. Thus, it is possible for mountain climbers to make an estimate of their altitude by boiling water and
quickly cooling it.
measuring its temperature.
collecting the steam.
varying the air pressure.
The cannibalistic activity of the praying mantis cannot be excused on the grounds that it occurs only in times of scarcity. This creature does not wait for a poor season to prey on its own kind. Even when other food is abundantly provided, the praying mantis will willingly
devour its brothers and sisters.
rob the larders of other insects.
hunt for its own food.
store food for emergency use.
There has been some speculation about the effects that a four-day work week would have on industry. There are some industries that would certainly benefit--those associated with
Mature elephants are usually easily tamed through regular feeding, friendliness, firm discipline, and contact with other tame elephants. Thus, the elephant is a marked exception to the rule that wild animals captured when fully grown can rarely be
A patent cannot be obtained for scientific principles or philosophical ideas, no matter how valuable they may be in the realm of science. Patents are granted for working devices that may use scientific principles, but until some workable application leading to material advantage has been demonstrated, the application for a patent will be
Education is not a process of filing and storing facts and ideas in their appropriate cranial niches. Even more basic is the eradication of false ideas and unsound ways of thinking. Elimination is often more important than
This particular artist has always been admired by art critics. Now, since her work will be displayed in a popular museum during the tourist season, it is hoped that her circle of admirers will expand to include the
The emerald has long been one of the most expensive precious stones. An emerald that is both large and perfect is seldom found because the stone is so brittle that it is often marred by cracks. The largest emerald known is hexagonal and is about five centimeters in diameter and in length, but it has many
Required in every good lover--the whole alphabet: Agreeable, Bountiful, Constant, Dutiful, Easy, Faithful, Gallant, Honest, Ingenious, Just, Kind, Loyal, Mild, Noble, Officious, Prudent, Quiet, Rich, Secret, True, Upright, Valiant, Wise, Xenial,
a true paragon of virtues.
Honest, and Ingenious.
Young, and Zealous.
The central character of a tragedy can never be a stereotype, for only an individual is capable of suffering. "Typical" suffering is a myth, for, of all things, pain is the most
Emerson gave this advice: "There is one topic peremptorily forbidden to all well-bred, to all rational mortals, namely, their distempers. If you have not slept, or if you have slept, or if you have a headache, or sciatica, or leprosy, or thunderstroke, I beseech you, by all angels, to
hold your tongue."
stay out of crowds."
keep yourself home."
call a physician."
It is estimated that, before the invention of farm machinery, it took the work of nine farm families to support themselves and one non-farm family. With modern farm machinery, one farm family can produce at least enough for nine non-farm families. It is not surprising that the farm population has
a variety of crops.
Migrating birds that arrive for nesting in early spring leave again at the end of summer when the days are of the same length as when they arrived. This fact has led some scientists to believe that birds' urge to travel is the result of the
need for new food supplies.
amount of sunshine.
Persons of eminent virtue, when they are advanced, are less envied, for their fortune seemeth but due unto them, and no one envieth
another's good luck.
a small gain in fortune.
advancement of an equal.
the payment of a debt.
In general, people express themselves better in speaking than in writing. One reason is that we have so much more practice in speaking than in writing. One rule is sometimes given to students in hope of improving their writing:
relax when you start to write.
try to speak as you write.
keep the dictionary at your elbow.
welcome every opportunity to write.
In the past, Thailand exported large quantities of rice to China. The rice boats were very large; when they returned to Thailand without cargo, they needed ballast. Tourists were told that this fact explains why Thailand has so many
rice boats in China.
ancient Chinese paintings.
stone statues of animals.
One happy combination that will surely lead to success is a high ultimate goal plus concrete immediate goals. Successful persons are ones who know not only what level of achievement they want to have attained ten years hence, but also
what they want to accomplish in the next two days.
what difficulties they will have to overcome on the way.
whether they have the required abilities to succeed.
how much money they want the position to pay.
Our environment is an ever-changing one. We are continually forced to adapt ourselves to novel situations. Thus, our well-being
depends upon our originality.
is necessary for proper adjustment.
is rarely threatened.
rests on our ability to remain firm and rigid.
The atmosphere has an almost limitless ability to dilute atmospheric pollution. An engineering problem arises, however, when the speed at which the diffusion of industrial wastes released into the atmosphere is so slow as to allow excessive
speed of dispersion.
dilution of waste.
release of waste.
There is in every breast a sensibility to marks of praise, of acknowledgement, of esteem, and of confidence that, apart from all considerations of interest, is some pledge for grateful and benevolent returns. Ingratitude is a common topic of declamation against human nature; it must be confessed that instances of it are but too frequent and flagrant both in public and private life. The universal and extreme indignation that ingratitude inspires is itself a proof of the energy and prevalence of
its benevolent returns.
the contrary sentiment.
the frequent approval of it.
Economic salvation, both national and personal, has nothing to do with petty economies. Economic survival depends on the rate of consumption. If you want to have more cake tomorrow, you have to
eat more cake today.
plan far ahead.
make substantial savings.
Young people are fitter to invent than to judge, fitter for execution than for counsel, and fitter for new projects than for settled business. The experience of age, in things that fall within the compass of it, directeth them, but in new things,
In translating one of the classical poets of antiquity, we may translate word by word and thus go through the most beautiful language of ancient poetry; however, it does not follow that, because we have spelled over the pages, we understand the meaning of the passage. So it is also with the study of nature: we may be able to name a great variety of natural phenomena, but we have no real understanding until we comprehend their
It is a misfortune, inseparable from human affairs, that public measures are rarely investigated with that spirit of moderation that is essential to a just estimate of their real tendency to advance or obstruct the public good. That this spirit is more apt to be diminished than promoted by those occasions that require
an unusual exercise of it.
unanimity on the question.
historical precedent for a course of action.
strong conviction on the issue.
The recent tendency in published biography is towards the delighted revelation of character flaws, grievous errors in judgment, and moral lapses. No longer are biographical subjects enveloped in a glowing aura; indeed, the art of biography has degenerated into a careful scrutiny of