CHEM 10 STUDY GUIDE – CHAPTER 11

Suggested End-of-Chapter Problems:  All of them!  You should do as many problems as necessary in order to develop your mastery of the concepts. Pay particular attention to the later problems, as these are more relevant to test-level questions.  Extra Practice on the website

Objectives:

11.2

·         understand,  explain, and list the basic principles of Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)

·         use KMT to explain the properties of gases

11.3

·         understand and define pressure

·         understand and define atmospheric pressure

·         know, recognize, and convert between 3 units for pressure: torr, mm Hg, and atmospheres

·         memorize the conversion between torr and mmHg

·         memorize and explain what is meant by STP conditions (from notes)

·         memorize the values and units for standard temperature and pressure

·         understand and define standard conditions, standard temperature and pressure

Note:  Although the standard molar volume of a gas is a convenient shortcut to use for solving problems, it is extremely important that you realize that this value is only valid at STP conditions.  If your problem involves conditions other than STP, you can not use this value directly.

Note:  You will NOT have to memorize any of the separate gas laws listed below.  Instead, concentrate on being able to use the combined gas law and the ideal gas equation.

11.4

·         understand and  explain Boyle’s Law in terms of Kinetic Molecular Theory

·         apply the Combined Gas Law to predict the effect of changing pressure on volume (and vice-versa)

11.5

·         understand and explain Charles’ Law in terms of Kinetic Molecular Theory

·         apply the Combined Gas Law to predict the effect of changing temperature on volume (and vice-versa)

11.6

·         understand the meaning of the Combined Gas Law

·         apply the Combined Gas Law to predict the effect of changing one variable on any other variable

Extremely Important:  All gas laws require all temperatures to be in units of Kelvin. To understand why, try using the equations with a temperature of 0 °C or with negative temperatures (perfectly reasonable temperatures for gases, especially in states like Minnesota!!).

11.7

·         understand and describe Avogadro’s Law in terms of Kinetic Molecular Theory

·         apply Avogadro’s Law to predict the relationship between the number of moles and the volume of a gas

11.8

·         understand and describe the Ideal Gas Law

·         recognize the value and units for R, the gas constant

·         apply the Ideal Gas Law

·         calculate the molar mass of a gas given the appropriate information

11.9

·         understand and define partial pressure, vapor pressure

·         understand how the various parameters for gases apply to mixtures of gases

·         solve gas problems involving partial pressures and collecting gases over water

11.10

·         solve stoichiometric problems involving gases

·         memorize the value and units for standard molar volume of a gas at STP, and use this value in problems